Non-postage stamp of the Russian Social-democratic workers ' party "Bund" (V. E. R. S.).
Eastern Europe. The beginning of the XX century. 1 brand. Paper; size (3.5 x 6 cm). Worn around the perimeter, has minor losses and tears; temporary and household stains; photos are for reference and are not part of the lot.
In the photo above, the conference of the Bund. On the banners: "Long live the international!", " General Jewish workers 'Union in Lithuania, Poland and Russia" Bund"", " Long live the revolution!".
The second is a postcard issued by the Bund, exposing the Tsar's misdeeds.
[The Bund (בונד, `Union` — Yiddish; full name אַלגעמײַנער ײִדישער אַרבעטער בונד אין ליטע, פּוילן און רוסלאַנד Algemeiner the Jewish arbeiterbund in Leith, Poyln UN Rusland — `General Union of Jewish workers in Lithuania, Poland and Russia`) — a Jewish socialist party in Russia, later in Poland and the USA.
The Jewish labor movement in the Russian Empire emerged and took shape in the Bund in "Jewish Lithuania", that is, in the six North-Western provinces of the Jewish pale of settlement (Vilna, Vitebsk, Grodno, Kovno, Minsk, Mogilev) with the city of Vilna (Vilnius) as the center, and in Warsaw, that is, in areas with absolutely and relatively large Jewish proletariat. The trend towards assimilation was less strong in this region. From there came the first leaders of the Bund. From Lithuania and Belarus, the Jewish labor movement gradually spread to Poland and Ukraine.
The Jewish labor movement was formed from three sectors in Jewish society.
First, employees who had a corporate consciousness and cohesion as a result of the capitalization of crafts and the collapse of traditional craft associations (hebroth), which led to the creation of separate organizations of students (from the mid-19th century, especially in the clothing industry). Separate strikes took place in the 1870s among weavers and tobacconists.
Second, there were circles of radical intellectuals who in this region combined revolutionary ideas and Marxist ideology with Jewish identity and responsibility to the Jewish proletariat.
Finally, there was the semi-intelligentsia, which, although it lacked formal General education, was deeply rooted in Jewish culture.
In the 1870s, Aharon Shmuel Lieberman and his circle made the first attempts to spread socialist ideas among the Jewish people in their native language and start a revolutionary movement.
Since the 1880s, this movement has been constantly developing, creating a Jewish labor movement. In 1882, 70 Jewish weavers in Bialystok stopped working at the factory and demanded higher wages. This is considered the first strike in the Jewish sector in tsarist Russia.
The Bund was founded at an illegal Congress in Vilna, with 13 delegates (8 of them workers). In October 1897, the Bund was part of the social democratic workers ' party (RSDLP); at the 1st (constituent) Congress of the RSDLP in Minsk in 1898, three of the nine delegates were Bundists. The Bund joined the Russian party as an Autonomous body, and Kremer was elected a member of its Central Committee.
By the end of 1917, the Bund had about 40,000 members in 400 organizations, of which 20% were outside the former pale of settlement, consisting mainly of refugees expelled from Poland. In the General political arena, the leaders of the Bund (M. Lieber and R. Abramovich) defended the platforms of the right and left Mensheviks.
At the all-Russian 12th conference in Moscow (April 1920), the leadership of the Bund in Russia split into "right" and "left" (1920). The majority, led by A. Weinstein and "Esther" (Lifshitz), supported joining the Communists, but on an independent basis. Although this condition was rejected by the Communist international, the Minsk conference (March 1921) decided to join the RCP (b). in January 1925, the Communist party had 2,795 former Bundists, forming 9% of its Jewish members. These include some leaders of the EU section. Later, under Stalin, most of them were subjected to repression.
At present, the Bund continues to function in almost all Western countries where there is a Jewish population, but nowhere does it occupy a significant position in Jewish public life. Despite its consistent anti-Zionist stance, the Bund also exists in Israel, but does not play any significant role in the spiritual and social life of the state.]